Second Law Analysis for Free Convection in an L-Shaped Cavity Filled with Nanofluid

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Afroza Nahar
Salma Parvin
Md. Hasanuzzaman


The paper aims to analyze the effects of various Prandtl number and different nanoparticles for heat transfer and entropy generation of free convection laminar fluid flow in an L-shaped cavity filled by nanofluid. To investigate the second law characteristics of free convective flow and heat transfer from an L- shaped geometry filled by water and nanofluids (Cu-water, Ag-water, Al2O3-water), the effects of Prandtl number and various nanoparticles on the average Nusselt number, total entropy generation and Bejan number has been numerically analyzed. Isotherms, stream function and entropy generation caused by heat transfer are also presented for various Prandtl numbers and various nanoparticles. The governing equations are solved using penalty finite element method with Galerkins weighted residual technique. The results reveal that Ag-water nanofluid with highest Prandtl number gives the highest amount of irreversibility as well as rate of heat transfer. Cu-water and Ag-water nanofluid produces more irreversibilities than Al2O3-water nanofluid and base fluid.  Also the results show that the Nusselt number and Bejan number increase with the increase of Prandtl number. Therefore, Prandtl number may be an important parameter for desired heat transfer increment with decreasing entropy generation in the given geometry.

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How to Cite
A. Nahar, Salma Parvin, and Md. Hasanuzzaman, “Second Law Analysis for Free Convection in an L-Shaped Cavity Filled with Nanofluid”, AJSE, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 132 - 144, Aug. 2023.