Study and Analysis of Photonic Crystal Fiber for Broadband Laser Source Design

Main Article Content

Mohammed Faisal
SK.M. Jahangir Kabir


Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) has been a topic of extensive research in the field of nonlinear fiber optics. It is due to its combination of linear and nonlinear properties which ultimately results in the phenomenon having various types of applications. One of the phenomena is supercontinuum generation that has been extensively studied numerically and experimentally over the last few decades as it has important applications in the field of medical imaging and sensing. In this paper, we numerically analysed and studied PCF of hexagonal core with various parameters and propose our novel ‘Star in Hexagon’ design as a good candidate for the broadband supercontinuum generation and hence a broadband laser source. We numerically pumped a long 10 mm PCF of this kind at 3.1 um wavelength with a pulse having a power of 4000 W and a temporal width of 50 fs. A broadband supercontinuum ranging from 1.7 um to 18 um was obtained. The generated spectrum is quite well in the mid-infrared region. Hence it can be utilised for Mid – Infrared (MIR) applications.

Article Details

How to Cite
FaisalM. and KabirS. J., “Study and Analysis of Photonic Crystal Fiber for Broadband Laser Source Design”, AJSE, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 142 - 150, Dec. 2021.


[1] John M. Dudley, Goëry Genty, and Stéphane coen, ”Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Reviews of Modern Physics, vol. 78, December, 2006.
[2] Md. Bellal Hossain, Abdullah Al-Mamun Bulbul, Md. Abdul Mukit, and Etu Podder, “Analysis of Optical Properties for Square, Circular and Hexagonal Photonic Crystal Fiber,” in Optics and Photonics Journal, vol. 7, no. 11, 2017.
[3] Sagor Biswas, Ragib Shakil Rafi, Md. Abdullah Al-Amin, and Sabbir Alam, “Analysis of the Effect of Air Hole Diameter and Lattice Pitch in Optical Properties for Hexagonal Photonic Crystal Fiber, ” in Optics and Photonics Journal, vol. 5, no. 7, 2015.
[4] S. M. A. Razzak, Yoshinori Namihira, Feroza Begum, Shubi Kaijage, Tatsuya Kinjo, Jitsuryo Nakahodo, Kazuya Miyagi, and Nianyu Zou, "Decagonal Photonic Crystal Fibers with Ultra-Flattened Chromatic Dispersion and Low Confinement Loss," OFC/NFOEC 2007 Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Anaheim, CA, 2007, pp. 1-6.
[5] S. M. A. Razzak and Yoshinori Namihira, "Tailoring Dispersion and Confinement Losses of Photonic Crystal Fibers Using Hybrid Cladding," in Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 26, no. 13, pp. 1909-1914, July 1, 2008.
[6] Pooja Agarwal, “Modeling of Elliptical Air Hole PCF for Lower Dispersion,” Advances in Electronic and Electric Engineering, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 439-446, 2013.
[7] R. Buczynski, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” in Acta Physica Polonica A, vol. 106, no. 2, 2004.
[8] Arpit Singh Yadav, Aparna Singh, Vijay Shanker Chaudhary, and Dharmendra Kumar, "Ultra-Flat Dispersion with High Nonlinearity Hexagonal Photonic Crystal Fiber," 2018 5th IEEE Uttar Pradesh Section International Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering (UPCON), Gorakhpur, 2018, pp 1-3.
[9] K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, and E. Sasaoka, "Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion," Optics Express, vol. 11, issue 8, pp. 843-852, 2003.
[10] Mohit Sharma, Swapan Konar, and Kaisar R. Khan, “Supercontinuum generation in Highly nonlinear hexagonal photonic crystal fiber at very low power,” Journal of Nanophotonics, vol. 9, no. 1, April, 2015.
[11] Feroza Begum, Hazwani Suhaimi, Norazanita Shamsuddin, Martin Geoffrey Blundell, and Yoshinori Namihira, “Supercontinuum generated high power highly Nonlinear photonic crystal fiber for medical and optical communications applications,” Modern Electronic Materials, vol.4, no. 2, pp. 53-58, June, 2018.
[12] Shixun Dai, yingying Wang, xuefeng Peng, Peiqing Zhang, Xunsi Wang, and Yinsheng Xu, “A review of Mid-infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Chalcogenide Glass Fibers,” Applied Sciences, vol. 8, no. 5, pp 707, May 2018.
[13] H. Ahmad, M. R. Karim, S. Ghosh, and B. M. A. Rahman, “Generation of an ultrabroadband supercontinuum in the mid infrared region using dispersion engineered GeAsSe photonic crystal fiber,” Optical and Quantum Electronics, vol. 50, no. 405, 2018.
[14] M. R. Karim, B. M. A. Rahman, Y. O. Azabi, A. Agrawal, and Govind P. Agrawal, “Ultrabroadband mid-infrared supercontinuum generation through dispersion engineering of chalcogenide microstructured fibers”, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol. 32, no. 11, 2015.
[15] Sandeep Vyas, Takasumi Tanabe, Manish Tiwari, and Ghanshyam Singh, “Ultraflat broadband supercontinuum in highly nonlinear Ge11.5As24Se64.5 photonic crystal fibers,” Ukranian Journal of Physical Optics, vol. 17, no. 3, pp 132-139, August, 2016.
[16] Pooja Chauhan, Ajeet Kumar, and Yogita Kalra, “Mid-infrared broadband supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear rectangular core chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber,” Optical Fiber Technology, vol. 46, pp. 174-178, December, 2018.
[17] Lingxiao Fan, Lijun Xu , Hongxing Cai , Xiuping Sun, Fangzhou Zhao, Zhenjiang Li, and Zhenshan Qi, "Study on dispersion of photonic crystal fiber," in 2015 International Conference on Manipulation, Manufacturing and Measurement on the Nanoscale (3M-NANO), pp. 210-213, October, 2015.
[18] Md. Mahbub Hossain and Md. Maniruzzaman, “Study of Confinement Loss in Photonic Crystal Fiber,” in International Conference on Materials, Electronics & Information Engineering, June, 2015.
[19] Govind P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Fifth Edition, Oxford, UK: Academic Press, 2013.
[20] J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibers, Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
[21] M. R. Karim, B. M. A. Rahman, and Govind P. Agrawal, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation using dispersion-engineered Ge11.5As24Se64.5 chalcogenide channel waveguide,” in Optics Express, vol. 23, no. 5, March 9, 2015.
[22] Pan Ma, Duk-Yong Choi, Yi Yu, Xin Gai, Zhiyong Yang, Sukanta Debbarma, Steve Madden and Barry Luther-Davies, "Low-loss chalcogenide waveguides for biosensing in the mid-infrared," 2014 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, pp. 59-60, 2014.
[23] Pan Ma, Duk-Yong Choi, Yi Yu, Xin Gai, Zhiyong Yang, Sukanta Debbarma, Steve Madden and Barry Luther-Davies, “Low-loss chalcogenide waveguides for chemical sensing in the mid-infrared,” in Optics Express, vol. 21, no. 24, December 2, 2013.
[24] R. Cherif, M. Zghal and L. Tartara, "Experimental and numerical analysis of white light generation in an air-silica photonic crystal fibre," 2009 3rd ICTON Mediterranean Winter Conference, pp. 1-6, 2009.
[25] Maxime Jacquet, Negative Frequency at the Horizon: Theoretical Study and Experimental Realisation of Analogue Gravity Physics in Dispersive Optical Media, Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, April 26, 2018.
[26] Ilaria Cristiani, Riccardo Tediosi, Luca Tartara and Vittorio Degiorgio, ¬“Dispersive wave generation by solitons in microstructured optical fibers,” in Optics Express, vol. 12, no. 1, January 12, 2004.
[27] William H. Press, Saul A. Teukolsky, William T. Vetterling and Brian P. Flannery, Numrical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computiung, Third Edition, New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, September 10, 2007.
[28] Stephane Balac, Arnaud Fernandez, Fabrice Mahe, Florian Mehats, and Rozenn Texier-Picard, “The Interaction Picture Method for Solving the Generalized Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation in Optics,” in ESAIM: Control, Optimisation and Calculus of Variations, vol. 50, no. 4, pp 945-964, June 06, 2016.
[29] F. Matera, A. Mecozzi, M. Romagnoli, and M. Settembre, “Sideband instability induced by periodic power variation in long-distance fiber links,” in Optics Letters, vol. 18, no. 18, September 15, 1993.
[30] Y. Yu, X. Gai, C. Zhai, S. Qi, W. Guo, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Choi, S. Madden and B. Luther-Davies, “1.8-10 µm mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a step-index chalcogenide fiber using low peak pump power,” in Optical Letters, vol. 40, pp. 1081-1084, 2015.
[31] F. Silva, D.R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” in Nature Communications, vol. 3, no. 807, 2012.

DB Error: Unknown column 'Array' in 'where clause'